Coronaviruses are a large group of viruses that cause diseases in animals and humans. They often circulate among camels, cats, and bats, and can sometimes evolve and infect people.
In animals, coronaviruses can cause diarrhea in cows and pigs, and upper respiratory disease in chickens. In humans, the viruses can cause mild respiratory infections, like the common cold, but can lead to serious illnesses, like pneumonia.
Coronaviruses are named for the crown-like spikes on their surface. Human coronaviruses were first identified in the mid-1960s. They are closely monitored by public health officials.
Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19)
The novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) that causes COVID-19 first emerged in the Chinese city of Wuhan in 2019 and was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). In December 2020, the US launched a national vaccination campaign. There are steps you can take to help stop the spread of COVID-19.
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) was first reported in 2012 in Saudi Arabia and spread to more than 25 other countries. MERS originated in camels and emerged to infect people. Symptoms usually include fever, cough, and shortness of breath, and often progress to pneumonia. About 3 or 4 out of every 10 patients reported with MERS have died. MERS cases continue to occur, primarily in the Arabian Peninsula; however, as of 2019, there have been only two confirmed cases of MERS in the US, both in 2014.
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) originated in small mammals and emerged to infect people. SARS was first reported in Southern China in 2002 and the illness spread to more than two dozen countries in North America, South America, Europe, and Asia. Symptoms include fever, chills, and body aches, and may progress to pneumonia. Infection with the SARS virus causes acute respiratory distress (severe breathing difficulty), with a mortality rate of about 10 percent. The illness spread to more than two dozen countries in North America, South America, Europe, and Asia before the SARS global outbreak of 2003 was contained.
Of these three types of coronavirus, MERS and SARS have a higher fatality rate than COVID-19, but are more difficult to transmit (MERS and SARS require direct personal contact). All three originated in animals, although the source of COVID-19 is still unknown.
Most people get infected with human strains of coronaviruses at some point in their lives. These illnesses usually last for a short amount of time, and symptoms may include:
- runny nose
- sore throat
Additional symptoms have been reported with COVID-19. Human coronaviruses can cause other more serious illnesses, such as pneumonia or bronchitis. This is more common in individuals with heart and lung disease, those with weakened immune systems, infants, and older adults.
If you are concerned about symptoms, call a healthcare professional and tell them about recent travel or exposures. Do not go directly to the doctor’s office or hospital, where you may infect other people.
There are laboratory tests available to detect human coronaviruses. For COVID-19, viral tests can detect current infection, and antibody tests can detect previous infection.
Human coronaviruses can be spread primarily through:
- coughing and sneezing
- close personal contact (within ~6 feet), such as touching or shaking hands
- touching an object or surface with the virus on it, then touching your mouth, nose, or eyes
There are steps you can take to help prevent infection:
- get vaccinated
- wear a face mask
- practice social distancing (stay 6 feet apart)
- wash your hands with soap and water for at least 20 seconds
- avoid touching your eyes, nose, or mouth
- cover coughs and sneezes with a tissue
- clean and disinfect objects and surfaces
- avoid close contact with people who are sick and stay home if you are sick
For all patients, supportive care is recommended:
- take pain and fever medications
- use a humidifier or take a hot shower
- drink plenty of liquids
- stay home and rest
The Food and Drug Administration has approved treatments for certain patients with COVID-19. If you are infected, contact a healthcare professional to see if you are eligible. Treatments used for COVID-19 should be prescribed by a healthcare professional. People have been seriously harmed and have even died after taking products not approved for COVID-19, even products approved or prescribed for other uses. Many clinical trials are underway in the US and other countries to evaluate new antiviral drugs for treating patients with COVID-19.
Last Reviewed January 2022
Sources: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Food and Drug Administration
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