Measles Graphic

What is Measles?

Measles is a disease caused by a virus that lives in the nose and throat phlegm of an infected person and spreads easily through breathing, coughing, and sneezing.

When someone with measles coughs, sneezes, or talks, infected droplets spray into the air (where other people can breathe them in) or land on a surface (where they can make others sick) for several hours. If others breathe the contaminated air or touch the infected surface, then touch their eyes, noses, or mouths, they can become infected.

Measles is so contagious that if one person has it, up to 90% of the people close to that person who are not immune will also become infected. Infected people can spread measles to others from 4 days before through 4 days after the rash appears.

How Serious or Common is Measles?

Measles can be serious:

  • About 1 in 5 unvaccinated people in the US who get measles will be hospitalized
  • 1 out of every 1,000 people with measles will develop brain swelling, which could lead to brain damage
  • As many as 1 in 20 children with measles gets pneumonia
  • 1 to 3 out of 1,000 people with measles will die, even with the best care

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), measles outbreaks occur in every region of the world. In the US, measles cases happen when:

  • travelers who get measles abroad bring it into the US
  • cases spread in US communities with pockets of unvaccinated people

In 2019, more than 1,200 cases of measles were confirmed in 31 states—the largest number of cases since measles was eliminated in the US in 2000.

In 2023, nearly 60 measles cases were reported in the US. As of February 2024, 35 measles cases have been reported in 15 states.

Symptoms

Measles symptoms include:

  • rash
  • cough
  • runny nose
  • eye irritation
  • fever

Children with measles often feel miserable and may miss school, with loss of appetite, diarrhea, and sensitivity to any light.

The rash usually appears about 14 days after a person is exposed. The rash spreads from the head to the trunk to the lower extremities. Patients who have compromised immune systems do not always develop the rash.

Prevention

The measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) vaccine is a safe and effective way to protect you and your family from measles.

In the US, 2 doses of the MMR vaccine are recommended for children. Infants normally get their first measles vaccine between 12 and 15 months followed by another shot between 4 and 6 years. However, CDC recommends that any baby as young as 6 months old who will be traveling internationally should get a vaccine before leaving the US, followed by 2 additional doses later.

Adolescents (preteens and teens) who were not previously vaccinated should get 2 doses (with at least 28 days between doses); those who only received 1 dose previously should get the second dose.

All adults born in 1957 or later who have not been vaccinated or have not had measles should be vaccinated. If you are not sure whether you have been vaccinated, it is safe to get another measles vaccine.

The only people who should not get measles vaccine are those who are immunocompromised or pregnant. Talk to a healthcare professional to find out if you should get vaccinated.

Treatment

There is no specific antiviral drug available to treat measles. The goal of medical care is to relieve symptoms and address complications such as bacterial infections. Severe measles cases among children, including those who are hospitalized, may be treated with vitamin A.

 

Updated February 2024

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

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